Inflammation is a critical response to potential external and internal danger signals and damage in organs. The inflammatory process can take two basic forms, acute and chronic. Acute inflammation is the body’s immediate response to injury and helps to prevent further injury while facilitating the healing and recovery process.

Chronic inflammation may last beyond the actual injury, sometimes for months or even years. It can become a problem itself and require medical intervention to control or stop further inflammation-mediated damage. Chronic inflammatory diseases contribute to more than half of deaths worldwide (Nature Medicine 2019; 25(12):1822–1832).

The immune response occurs in two overlapping stages. The innate immune response represents a first line response to antigens mediated by macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. These cells also produce cytokines such as IL-1 and IL-6 that are the main drivers of inflammation.

Inflammation is associated with diseases in several therapeutic categories such as:

  • Dermatology
  • Cardiology
  • Metabolic Disorders
  • Pulmonary Diseases
  • Psychiatric and neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Infectious Disease (ARDS)
  • Rheumatology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Oncology

Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a master cytokine of local and systemic inflammation and part of the innate immune system. It is activated as part of the innate immune response by inflammasomes and caspase-1 and plays a pathogenic role in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.